The above illustrations depicted in
Figures 10B and 11 are animations of gravitational lensing as predicted
by the light bending rule of General Relativity and as presented in the
textbooks, in the literature and in the lectures.
For a gravitation mass of 4 million
times Msun (the galactic mass of Sagittarius A*) at the same
impact parameter, a gravitational deflection for the light ray would be α
= (1.75/214) x 4*10^6 = 32710
arcsec or α
= 9.08 degrees. This would be
a very noticeable lensing effect for modern astronomical means.
It is also interesting to note
that the orbiting stars denoted as S2 and S14 have highly elliptical
orbits with orbital periods of 15.24 and 38 years respectively. Also note that
the nearest point of approach in the orbits of S2 and S14 to the
perceived black hole occurred at 2002.315 and 2000.156 respectively. This
double event occurred to within 2.159 years
apart from one another; a
back-to-back event. This will not occur again for another 76 years
and 152 years, when the nearest point of approach is predicted to occur
to within 3 years of one another, assuming correctness of the orbital periods of these
stars. Either a missed opportunity occurred during the observation of this back-to-back
gravitational lensing event or this gravitational lensing effect, as is predicted by the
light bending rule of General Relativity, simply does not occur.
To date there has been no evidence of
a gravitational lensing effect as can be detected from the broad band emissions
of electromagnetic waves coming from the stellar objects orbiting about
Sagittarius A*. The emissions that permit the astrophysicists to track
these stellar objects, moving strictly according to Kepler's laws about
Sagittarius A*, lie predominantly in the ultraviolet, x-ray
and gamma-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. All these
emissions, however, are theoretically subjected to the very same light bending
rule of General Relativity.
An evidence of gravitational light bending at
the site of Sagittarius A*, as is predicted by the light bending rule of
General Relativity, is yet to be observed; an area under intense observations by
modern Astrophysics since its
discovery in 1992.
It is interesting to note that only in the movies and
in the animated illustrations do these gravitational lensing scenes occur; all of
which are merely artist depictions of how such an events might appear to the modern astrophysical or astronomical
observers. Some examples are as
|An animated artist
depiction of an Accretion Disc around a Black Hole. Source:
Astronomy Department, Washington University
|An artist's impression
of an accretion disk around a black hole according to a
new theory where the depicted region produces most of
the observed X-rays. Source: Max-Planck-Institut für
The academic textbooks are filled with
artist impressions pertaining to gravitational lensing effects
similar to the above depicted illustrations. From the important
fundamentals of Physics delealing with this subject, having gone through
Topics 1 to 7, a final conclusion should be easily made herewith.
is no astronomical or astrophysical evidence for a
time resolved gravitational lensing event resembling any of the above
artist depicted illustrations and animated representations thereof.