Extinction Shift Principle : The Details


A Brief Historical Review

On the Principal Axioms of the  Extinction Shift Principle

In any emission theory, there are various combinations of light paths that need to be considered for theoretically interpreting the results pertaining to electromagnetic emissions. The experiment always pertains to a source {primary emitter}, an interference {one or more secondary sources of emission or re-emitters} and an observer {detector}. The principal axioms pertain to the various combinations of the state of the source, the interference and the observer and the direct application of the Galilean transformations to derive the observed frequencies, wavelengths and velocities in Euclidean Space. For instance, one experiment may involve a fixed source, a fixed interferer and a moving observer. Another experiment may involve a moving source, a fixed interferer and a moving observer. Still another experiment may involve a fixed source, a moving interferer and a fixed observer. And so on ...

Similarly, for the case of gravitation, a given primary mass particle may be considered as the source of a primary field that perturbed a secondary mass particle, the source of a secondary field. The secondary field of this mass conveys indirect information on the primary mass particle via its secondary field to yet a third tertiary mass or some sensor mass under influence of the fields. Here, the very same Galilean transformation of velocities were successfully applied to the gravitational fields and the effects thereof as in the case of the perihelion rotation effect of the planet Mercury and of the PSR13+16 neutron pulsar star system.

In the book, the section Extinction Shift Principle applied to Nullified Experiments in Optics, pages 16A - 27A, demonstrates that the principal axioms are consistent with the important experiments in optics and observational evidence in astrophysics.

On the Window Axiom

The following illustration demonstrates that the window medium or thickness of the window plays absolutely no role in the output of the optical experiment.  The interfering medium, namely a window or a lens transmits while the mirror reflects unaltered the incident frequency of interference .  It is assumed hereby again that the vacuum is void of any secondary sources of emission, allowing the waves to move undisturbed.  The waves emitted from an approaching source move undisturbed with velocity c+v in vacuum as illustrated. Note that at the  left boundary (pink) between the vacuum space and the window medium {at distances far less than the wavelength}, the incident primary wave at velocity c+v is in phase with the re-emitted transmitted wave in the medium at velocity c/n.  Also note that at the right boundary, the re-emitted transmitted wave in the medium at velocity c/n is in phase with the re-emitted secondary wave into vacuum at velocity c. This is a fundamental principle of optics. 


The frequency of interference, i.e., the number of waves of this signal passing any given fixed point per unit time would be

and the extinction shifted wavelength of a wave emitted from an approaching source remains to be


This is the measured value of the wavelength.

On the Mirror Axiom

Similarly, the mirror axioms are developed on page 21A and 22A of Appendix IV of the book. 

As a consequence of Galilean transformations and the classical principle of emissions directly from the source, all re-emissions of a photon occur at exactly the velocity c  with respect the frame of reference of the photons most primary source; not in all frames of reference.

Primary photons emitted from distant rotating stars will have a snowballs chance in hell arriving undisturbed to the vicinity of our earth based observers, as is evident that approximately 90% of the mass of our visible universe is unseen.  Even if a tiny fraction of this matter were in the form of the hydrogen and helium of interstellar gases, it would play a very significant role as an extinguishing medium. The intergalactic and interstellar gases act as interfering cosmic windows, extinguishing and re-emitting the photons coming directly from the primary sources of emission in cosmic space. The cosmic windows become  the secondary sources of emission of the cosmic space. The secondary emissions of the already extinguished photons are responsible for practically all optical/electromagnetic phenomena currently observed in modern Astronomy and Astrophysics. The very important Gravitational Redshift formulas are derived directly from the Moving Windows Axiom of the Extinction Shift Principle in Appendix III of the book.

The Measurement 

Any measurement on a primary wave or photon is a direct interference. As previously illustrated, any previously undisturbed wave of velocity c' originating from a moving primary source is immediately extinguished by the measuring apparatus and replaced by a new secondary wave of velocity c relative to it as follows:

The hypothetical observer depicted above will note that all re-emissions will have the velocity c relative to their most direct sources only, not constant in all frames of reference.  The ordinary real world observer, as already stated above, can measure neither the velocity nor the wavelength of a primary, anomalous velocity wave. The ordinary observer is the equivalent of the hypothetical observer with a fixed window placed in front of him; the Window Axiom applied.

Click anytime on Glossary of Terms for definitions.




On the Velocity of Light

What is an Extinction Shift

On Measurability of Wavelength and Velocity of Waves

On Principal Axioms of Extinction Shift Principal

On Rectilinear Motion of Waves

On Invariance of Wave Equation

On Mathematical Illustrations pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle