Extinction Shift Principle© : The Details

 PREVIOUS PAGE  Menu

A Brief Historical Review

On Discourses & Mathematical Illustration pertaining to the  Extinction Shift Principle

Solved Problems on GRAVITATION

Solar Light Bending (in Plasma Atmosphere of Sun)

Here, it is found that, due to the gravitational gradient of the plasma of the sun, the very same light bending equation of

is derived using pure classical assumptions only. Exactly 1.75 arcsec of light bending in the plasma atmosphere of the sun is predicted by this Extinction Shift Principle because of pure classical reasons only. The significant finding here is that for nearly a century of intense observations, an indirect interaction between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of light of the stars has been observed, not a direct interaction as predicted by General Relativity. The mere fact that this effect is observed for a century only in the plasma atmosphere of the sun is in itself a direct violation and thus an astrophysical discount and disproof of the light bending rule of General Relativity. Recall that Relativity claims gravitational light bending effect should occur in the vacuum space just slightly above the solar rim of the plasma as well as in the solar plasma atmosphere.

Page13A from the Appendix 

Page14A from the Appendix

It is important to note that this emission theory served as the tip-off that led to these findings, suggesting that the past century of solar lensing effect has to be due primarily to an indirect interaction between gravitation and light. The plasma atmosphere itself serves as the interacting medium, the evidence for which is clearly supported by the lack of observations for gravitational lensing in the vacuum space just a fraction of a solar radius above the solar plasma rim. (Published since 1991, in the First Edition as well as in the Second 2001 Edition of this Book.)

Perihelion Rotation

The outcome of significant experiments in natures laboratories, to include the optical phenomena of photons emitted from stars and the recently observed astrophysical phenomena, such as that of the PSR13+16 neutron pulsar system perihelion rotation and the apparent gravitational lensing effects were correctly predicted by applying solely the principal axioms of the Extinction Shift Principle in Euclidean Space Geometry.  The results here yield the very same equations that are derived using the assumptions of Relativity. This time, a pure classical approach is used.  The planet Mercury and the PSR13+16 neutron pulsar star system perihelion rotation effects were both calculated by applying solely Galilean transformations on the exchange of gravitons between the mass particles under one another's influence.  Distortions in the geometry of space and the time were not needed to arrive at the results.

Sample Pages, 29 and 30 from the Book

Exact Calculations for the Perihelion Rotation of Planet Mercury obtaining 42.998 arcsec/century

Gravitational Light Bending and Gravitational Redshift

Derivations for the so-called solar light bending effect and the gravitational redshift was illustrated in the book using step-by-step procedures without any need of any relativistic assumptions. This was accomplished by directly applying the Window Axioms that were derived from and are based directly on the sum total of experimental observations over the past century, thereby demonstrating that the very same principal axioms of the Extinction Shift Principle are applicable to both gravitation and electromagnetism. It is commonly accepted by the community of astrophysicists that a supper massive object, presumably a black hole resides at the galactic center with a mass of 3.7±1.5 million solar masses. From observations over a period of more than a decade now, the rapidly moving stars within a region of light days from the galactic core have been observed to move along purely Keplerian orbits, all about a single point known as Sagittarius A*. We recall that the solar light bending effect for rays of starlight at the solar limb has been predicted by General Relativity to be 1.75 arcsec.

The Extinction Shift Principle derives the very same formula as is derived by Relativity, but for a completely different reason. Relativity assumes a direct interaction between light and gravitation. The Extinction Shift Principle predicts that only indirect interactions, no direct interactions  actually take place between gravitation and electromagnetism via the secondary sources of emission acting on the rays of light. Hence, the solar plasma at the solar limb acts as the secondary sources of emission on the rays of star light that grazes the solar plasma. In the vacuum space just above the plasma rim is found to be void of any evidence of gravitational lensing. Also, at Sagittarius A*, there is convincing observational evidence that in the vicinity of the super massive object believed to be black hole, there can be no material secondary sources of emission there; no space containing matter. The rapid motion of the stars in the vicinity of Sagittarius A*, especially noteworthy to mention, the star s3 observed to pass very close moving with a velocity of 3% of the velocity of light. With this observation, only a pure vacuum space free any gravitating matter can exist near Sagittarius A*. The fast moving star s3 would have otherwise disintegrate flying thru anything other than a vacuum space. The vacuum space around Sagittarius A* has to be, for that reason, also void of any material atmospheric substance. Moreover, the vacuum space around Sagittarius A* was found to lack any evidence of gravitational lensing.  This very important finding has been published by this author in a renown refereed journal. Refer to the Significant Findings posted on the home page.

One can perform a very clear and simple Gedankenexperiment and show that the galactic core mass of 3.7±1.5 million solar masses will most assuredly have an effect of at least several million times the light bending effect of the 1.75 arcsec due to the solar mass predicted by Relativity. This is of course assuming the validity of the light bending theory of General Relativity. To date, the intensely observed images of the purely Keplerian orbits of the seemingly perfectly traced out elliptical paths of the stellar objects rapidly moving about Sagittarius A* show no evidence of lensing or distortion of these recorded  images in this region of space near Sagittarius A*. For details, refer to the refereed papers:

"Time resolved images from the center of the Galaxy appear to counter General Relativity", Dowdye, Jr., E.H.,  Astronomische Nachrichten, Volume 328, Issue 2, Date: February 2007, Pages: 186-191.  Published on-line at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/search/allsearch Search under author: Dowdye

For an abstract see: "Time resolved images from the center of the Galaxy appear to counter General Relativity", Dowdye, Jr., E.H.,  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AN....328..186D

More Sample Pages, 31 and 36 from the Book

Exact Calculations for the Perihelion Rotation of PSR1913+16 binary-pulsar star, 4.2265 degrees/year

 

Dr. Albert Einstein's own words: 

"Wenn die Lichtgeschwindigkeit auch nur ein bißchen von der Geschwindigkeit der Lichtquelle abhängig ist, dann ist meine ganze Relativitätstheorie und Gravitationstheorie falsch." {Zitat A. Einsteins von einem Brief an Erwin Finley-Freundlich: August 1913}

"If the velocity of light is only a tiny bit dependent on the velocity of the light source, then my whole theory of Relativity and Gravitation is false." {Quotation of A. Einstein from a letter to Erwin Finley-Freundlich: August 1913}.

A Denial of the teaching of the Alternative is a

Shortchanging of the new Pupil of Science

the tip-off that led to these findings

 

Acknowledgement

This author wishes to acknowledge with great pleasure the opportunity to have known and to have interacted with the late Dr. John Okolowski, Professor of Physics and Engineering at Widner University, a true scholar and a gentleman, to say the least, who Peer Reviewed the 1991 edition of this book.

 

 

 GO TO THE INDEX PAGE "Extinctionshift.com"

On the Velocity of Light

What is an Extinction Shift

On Measurability of Wavelength and Velocity of Waves

On Principal Axioms of Extinction Shift Principal

On Rectilinear Motion of Waves

On Invariance of Wave Equation

Page 8A

Electromagnetism

On Mathematical Illustrations pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle 

 

 

Page 8B

Gravitation

On Mathematical Illustrations pertaining to the Extinction Shift Principle