Significant Findings



Gravitational Deflection of Light and Microwaves

1) Minimum-Energy-Path of Light Rays in Solar Plasma Rim
2) Gauss's Law applied to Impact Parameter from Solar Rim out to Multiple Solar Radii
3) Shapiro Delay; a Frequency Dependent Transit Time Effect due to solar wind and plasma
4) Angular Deflection of All Electromagnetic Waves are observed only at the solar plasma limb
5) A Mõsbauer-Pound Rebka Model for gravitational potential gradient found to be in consistency with an indirectly interacting gravitational-electromagnetism light deflection model


(as Mom used to say a picture is worth 1000 words)

The gravitational deflection of light and microwaves propagate along a 

least time or minimum energy path only at the plasma-rim of the sun

exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun.




Gauss's Law applied to Impact Parameter of Gravitational Deflected Rays 

from the Solar Plasma Rim to Multiple Solar Radii above the Rim



Shapiro Delay, found to be a Frequency Dependent Transit Time Effect

due to the resonance of microwaves with the solar wind electrons and plasma 

Nothing at all to do with the Space Time Effect of General Relativity

  • All microwaves are observed to deflect by the angle of 1.75 arsecs only at the thin plasma limb of the sun      
  • All microwaves are subjected to both a frequency and an impact parameter dependent transit time delay






A Model for the Mösbauer Effect / Pound-Rebka Experiment

shows consistency where a gravitational potential gradient

acts directly on the 57Fe source and the absorber or the instrument,

but not on the emitted electromagnetic radiation or photon


The observational evidence in Astrophysics clearly shows that if the light bending rule of General Relativity were actually valid, then the following would be the consequences:

  • The star-abundant skies would be filled with images of Einstein rings

  • At high impact parameters far above the plasma rim of the stars, the astrophysical observations of deep space would be totally denied to all modern Astronomy

  • Deep space images of the skies due to gravitational lensing effects, would be completely blurred to all modern astronomy

  • The sought after Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) or simply put, the modification of Newton's law and/or General Relativity, in the attempt to satisfactorily explain the prevailing observations pertaining to the subject matters of gravitational lensing and the so-called dark matter would be totally unnecessary

These findings are clearly supported by the observational evidence.