From the Chalkboard

This is topic # 04, **"On
the Aberration of Gravitation"**

{Posted May 2003}

Let us briefly review the
concept of the *Aberration of Light*. Let
a distant light source have a given fixed position in the celestial sky as would
be noted by an observer in the same frame of reference as that of the source. The
*true* position of this light source in
space would be revealed to the fixed observer by
the direction of propagation of the **photons**
of light. The true position would be apparent to any observer who
happens to be in the frame of reference of the source. To a *hypothetical
observer*
only, the *undisturbed*
velocity of propagation of these photons
would be exactly **c**
according to the *Galilean Transformation* of velocities **c'=c+v,
**since the relative velocity **v**
of the
source and the observer is zero.

Now let the observer
move. Assume the motion of the observer is now in a direction *perpendicular*
to the direction of propagation of the *photons*
emitted from the fixed source with velocity **c
**relative to the source only. Equivalently, the velocity vector
**v**
points in a direction *perpendicular*
to the line joining the observer and the source. As a consequence of this
motions, an *aberration* of the
source's position would be noted by the moving observer and would have an
angular deviation of exactly

from the normal to the
plane of the ground. * *Note: Although
the ground is not moving, the moving observer here notes an apparent **aberrational
effect** relative to
the ground.

As an analogy to this
problem, let it rain **photons**. We may
assume we now have a rain shower where the raindrops are *photons*
pouring straight down upon us from the source directly above. The drops
hit the ground
perpendicularly with velocity **c **relative
to the plane of the ground and with angle of zero degrees relative to the normal
of the plane of the ground. Now we decide to run with velocity **v**
relative to the ground. As moving observers, we now note that the *photons*
fall with a slanted angle relative to the ground surface and at a
new angle deviating from the normal to the ground surface as is depicted in our
animated image.

Now let us assume that
these raindrops are *gravitons* falling
upon us at high noon directly from the sun. We may safely assign a
velocity for these *gravitons* as being
exactly equal to that of the velocity of light
**c**.
As we have seen and have mathematically verified {*see book*}, using
Keplar's orbital equations of motion, the precise results obtained by * Relativity*
for the planet Mercury and also for the PSR13+16 neutron-pulsar star Perihelion
rotation effects are gotten by applying *pure* *classical* approaches of the ** ***Extinction
Shift Principle* alone. Assigning a value to the velocity **v**
of orbit of the Earth about the sun of approximately 30
Km/sec, one would obtain an *aberrational effect*
of exactly

for our rainfall of *gravitons* which
is precisely the magnitude of the effect gotten for light **photons**. Note
again:* *The observer here does **not** have to run. The
ground of the Earth serves as our moving laboratory. We are all moving
observers.

We note that the solar
disc has a radius of R_{0}= 6.96E8
meters. Since the distance from the Earth to the sun is d=1.496E11
meters, this radius would correspond to an angle of

a radius of nearly 0.27
degrees and a solar width of nearly 0.5 degrees. This radius is roughly 50
times that of the expected amplitude of the *aberration
of gravitation*. This means that any *aberrational
effect of gravitation* would lie well within the solar disc
itself. Thus, classically predicted by this *emission
theory*, the effect of gravitational attraction would appear to
come from a point lying well within the solar disc of radius 960 arcsec,
as view from Earth, but off-set by only 20.5 arcsec
from the center of the solar disc.

Thus, the Earth is being pulled towards a point
that is off-set from the center of the solar disk by at least 20.5 arcsec
as is predicted using simple tools of this * ***emission theory**.

Important
Note: The *off-set point* as seen from Earth is also orbiting about the * center-of-mass* of the sun while the Earth orbits about the very
same center of the solar mass. Assuming a circular orbit, any *aberrational
effect of gravitation* would remain relatively constant. The *solar
off-set* point, however, becomes a *virtual body* and remains relatively *stationary***
**(**fixed**** **in space) as seen from the Earth.} Recall
that the sun also orbits about a * center-of-mass* of the Earth-Sun system and sees
also an *aberrational effect*
of the Earth's gravitational field. The relative constancy
{steady-state} of this *aberrational effect*
requires nothing other than that of the normal *Laws of Conservation of
Energy* and *of Momentum*; a *Principle of Classical Mechanics*. Therefore, there is no
requirement to assume a spiraling down effect of orbital motion due to an
aberrational
effect on gravitation.

This therefore verifies
the validity of the *Galilean transformation of
velocities*
in *Euclidean Space Geometry*, applying these to the *Principal
Axioms *of the *Extinction Shift Principle*
to gravitation alone.

Thus, an** **instantaneous
effect or an *action at a distance* would not be required or necessary
for an explanation of a "**spiraling down effect**" on gravitation.

**
**