The Scientific Details

A complex living organism could not have survived the deep space journey.

Life on Earth had to have been created right down here on the Earth.

Cosmic Radiation collides with proton nucleus creating secondary particles thus destroying the nucleus

Cosmic Radiation collides with inner structure of a complex DNA molecule, thus disrupting the health of the lifeform

This process occurs continually everywhere on Earth.  There is today NO PERFECT SHIELD against cosmic radiation!

The Waters which were above the Firmament

(The Scientific Details)

It is very important for ALL people of faith to know that the biosphere of our Earth contains an abundance of the element of carbon, an essential ingredient for life on the Earth.  It is a stable atomic system. The ordinary carbon atom is a building block of LIFE and has an atomic mass of 12.000000000 by definition. This carbon atom is referred to as a stable isotope of carbon and has the symbol 12C, sometimes written as  126C, which means it has a total of 12 nucleons, 6 neutrons and 6 protons. These are the atomic particles that make up the nucleus of the 12C atom. Carbon-12 (12C) atom has a natural abundance of 98.89% in nature. The carbon atom has another stable isotope that is slightly heavier than the 12C atom with the symbol 13C, sometimes written as  136C, which means it has a total of 13 nucleons, 7 neutrons and 6 protons.  The 13C atom has a natural abundance of 1.11% in nature.

ILLUSTRATION OF CONSTANT BOMBARDMENT OF EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE BY COSMIC RADIATION

If the rain of the intense cosmic radiation were visible to the human eye, the sky might appear to us as such.

Important Note:  With the Firmament in place, as described in Genesis, the entire atmosphere of the earth would have been shielded from the intense levels of cosmic radiation. The unstable 14C radio carbon atoms would have been missing or barely present in the biosphere of the Genesis patriarchs, the dinosaurs and all of the living organisms at that time. For this reason, the modern fossil dating techniques incorrectly date the remains of fossils that may have existed at the time of the Genesis firmament.

It is also very important to know that the Earth is a very unique planet. Earth, unlike other planets, provides us with a protective shield against the intense cosmic radiation that constantly bombards the biosphere of our planet Earth. Also note that this intense cosmic radiation is is millions of times more intense than the levels of energies of the most powerful atomic accelerators available to modern science. The fragments produced by these bombardments pore down as a constant RAIN of cosmic radiation upon all of the earth.

The Earth's unique biosphere and its intrinsic magnetic field serves as a shield against the intense levels of comic radiation. Neutrons are knocked free from atom nuclei in the upper atmosphere by the energetic cosmic radiation. When these neutrons strike the nuclei of an ordinary nitrogen atom designated as 14N, the nuclear reaction process converts the nitrogen 14N to a carbon 14C atom.  The new 14C atom contains 8 neutrons and 6 protons, a total of 14 nucleons, which is referred to as an unstable isotope of the carbon atom. The unstable 14C atom has a half-life of 5730 years. This means that in 5730 years, one half of a given quantity of  14C atoms will decay into a stable nitrogen 14N atom. The unstable 14C atom has a natural abundance of one unstable 14C atom for every one trillion stable 12C atoms. (1 part in 1,000,000,000,000 or 1012 , denoted as 1ppt, one part per trillion). This may seem insignificant, but it will later be seen that this quantity is very significant for the longevity of living organisms whose building blocks contains carbon atoms!

This process due to cosmic radiation may be written as follows:

n    +  14N → 14C

The unstable 14C is often referred to as a radioactive carbon atom or a radio-carbon atom. The unstable 14C atom will eventually decay, with a half-life expectancy of 5730 years, back to a stable 14N atom as follow:

14C → 14N + e- + me 

It is very very important to know that this phenomenon is frequently used as a carbon dating techniques. Also know that this technique assumes that the production rate of the radioactive carbon atoms in the atmosphere is a CONSTANT!!! It will be clear in these next few pages that this is absolutely NOT the case! The carbon dating technique is highly misused by researchers not familiar with the fundamentals of these natural processes!  Clear scientific evidence along with Bible scripture will greatly elucidate this topic. The carbon dating techniques are effective only for the dating of the materials which once lived, the remains of the plants and the animals which once took in the life essential elements of carbon and carbon compounds. It is NOT effective at all for the dating of  inanimate materials such as rocks or metals.

Important Note: The carbon dating techniques are often the tools of those who are attempting to promote certain theories and subject matter that are counter to the teachings of the Bible. The carbon dating techniques are not only misused, but are often driven to give answers to the wrong questions. This is primarily due to misinterpretations of biblical scriptures by researchers. It is not expected that the faithful reader will be able to comprehend all of the science, but be able to recognize the inconsistencies and the non-sense of the aggressors!

The Waters which were above the Firmament (Continued)

We know now that the biosphere of our Earth contains an abundance of the important element of stable 12C carbon atoms, an essential ingredient for life on the Earth.  The unstable 14C atom has a natural abundance in modern times of only one atom for every one trillion stable 12C atoms. That is only 1 part in 1,000,000,000,000 or one part in 1012. This is scientifically denoted as 1ppt or one part per trillion. However insignificant as this may seem, we know from the scriptures that this may be very significant after all. From the book of Genesis,

 Genesis 1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament

 from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

It is clearly evident from careful studies and examinations of the Earth's crust, that the early biosphere of the Earth may have contained much lower levels of radio carbons or reduced 14C/12C ratios in earlier times. A water vapor canopy in place, such a the firmament described in Genesis, would have greatly contributed to shielding of the Earth against the intense levels of cosmic radiation. From recent findings: "And globally the magnetic field has weakened 10% since the 19th century." See Ref 1. Many researchers believed that the stronger, more intense magnetic field of the Earth may be responsible for much lower 14C/12C ratios. This together with the firmament described in Genesis, would have shielded the earlier pre-flood Earth biosphere from the life threatening cosmic radiation.

Samples taken from a pre-flood material would yield results requiring a high degree of calibration, as the material would have a reduced 14C/12C ratio, having been exposed to an early atmosphere with reduced levels of radio carbons in comparison to our modern atmosphere of today. It is scientifically feasible that the early patriarchs of Genesis, with longevities in the nine-hundreds of years, would have greatly benefited from the pre-flood atmospheres.

REFERENCES:

1) http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/29dec_magneticfield.htm

2) Magnetic Field Core Concerns:  http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arch/10_19_96/bob1.htm 

3) Carbon-14 Dating Models and Experimental Implications: http://www.grisda.org/origins/24050.htm

The Waters which were above the Firmament (Continued)

Let us review.  

  • The important element of stable 12C carbon atom is an essential ingredient for life on the Earth.

  • The unstable 14C atom has a natural abundance in modern times of only one atom for every one trillion stable 12C atoms. 

  • All living things has this same natural abundance of the unstable 14C atom of the Earth biosphere till the time of death.

  • Dead things cannot replenish the carbon atoms in the non-living organic materials.

  • Immediately after death, the unstable 14C atoms contained in the remains of animals and plants continue to decay.

  • The unstable 14C atom has a half-life of 5730 years. In 5730 years, one half of the 14C atoms will decay into a stable nitrogen 14N atom.

  • After 5730 years  (after one half-life)    50% of the sample remains, 

  • After 11460 years (after two half-lives)   25% of the sample remains, 

  • After 17190 years (after three half-lives) 12.5% of the sample remains, etc., etc.

  • Long after 57300 years (after ten half-lives) no sample remains. It is referred to as "14C-dead" or "Carbon-14-dead". 

EXAMPLE 1: A seashell was found that had a level of about 25% of the natural abundance of the unstable 14C remaining. From the chart above, we can determine that at least two half-lives (2 x 5730 years) had passed and the sample must be at least 11,460 years old.

EXAMPLE 2: A piece of wood was found with the markings "Titulus Crucis", Latin "Title of the Cross". It was allegedly kept as a precious relic at the church of “Santa Croce in Gerusalemme”. If the researchers wanted to determine if this piece of wood were genuine, what percentage of radio carbon would you expect to be remaining? (We know that 50% requires 5730 years (a period too long.). A Bible scholar would look for a good answer somewhere between 60% and 90%).  Why? Why is it important for those who perform techniques of carbon dating to have some knowledge of the Bible? Parents: Do review this with your kids. Get help if you need it.

 
Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

Genesis 1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

Genesis 1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

 

In the Book of Genesis, there was no mentioning of stars, the moon, the sun and other heavily bodies by the patriarchs of the Bible until much later on, well after the Flood of Noah. A first mentioning of stars occurred in Genesis 1:16 "God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also." With the presence of the waters above the firmament, the stars, the planets, the moon and the depths of the heavens were probably not clearly visible or perhaps not visible at all to the patriarchs of the Old Testament at the time of Noah.

Genesis 1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

Genesis 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

Genesis 1:6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

Genesis 1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

Genesis 1:8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

Genesis 1:9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.

Genesis 1:10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

Genesis 1:12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.

Genesis 1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

Genesis 1:15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

Genesis 1:16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

Genesis 1:17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

Genesis 1:18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

 

Genesis 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. 

 

At this point, the waters above the firmament were no longer in place. The stars were mentioned for the first time and was assumed to be known to the patriarchs of the time. Clear views towards the heavens were established and wide open for intense levels of solar and cosmic radiation.

 

The stars of heaven were clearly in view to the patriarchs at this time.

 

Genesis 15:5  And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.

Genesis 22:17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;

Genesis 24:4  And I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed;

The CANOPY according to the Book of  GENESIS and Modern Scientific Method

The Theory

 

 

1) Particles of water of a CANOPY in vapor form orbited the Earth and moved in elliptical paths.
2) Collisions between the particles of water obeyed the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy and of Momentum.
3) The resulting new particles carried away the combined kinetic energy of the initial particles, shifting to new orbits after each collision.
4) And there were basically three kinds of collisions:
        A) Most collisions between particles of water often gave rise to new, smaller particles of water. These were the hard collisions approaching orbital velocities. The new particles scattered into increased numbers of smaller particles, which carried away the combined kinetic energy of the initial particles, shifting to new orbits after each collision.
        B) Adjacent particles belonging to a close bunch moved along similar paths with similar orbits and resulted in soft collisions, each time yielding larger particles of water vapor, as they lump together.
        C) Particles that moved counter to the predominant motion of the CANOPY would have resulted in hard heed- on collisions with relatively higher velocities and were most likely to induce ionization and chemical decomposition of the water vapor into hydrogen, oxygen and other free radicals.
The Laws of Thermodynamics and Physics suggest that the resulting products all collisions would have recombined quickly with the bulk of the waters of the CANOPY, a stabilizing effect, supportive of the longevity of the CANOPY system as is described in The Book of Genesis.
5) The predominant motion of the CANOPY was either according to a prograde orbital motion, same as that of the spinning Earth, or a retrograde orbital motion. The bulk of the waters moved together.  Modern science and the known ancient records on the CANOPY of waters above the firmament can not reveal, definitively, which of these possible directions might have been the predominant direction of motion.
6) Dividing evenly all waters above the firmament into single particles of water the size of a grain of sand, such that they were to share equally the space above the firmament, a single particle of water would have ample free space, essentially the volume an average sized refrigerator. Conceivably, a single particle of water could by chance make a complete orbit about the Earth without colliding with another particle of water.
7) This vastness of space provided to the waters above the firmament resulted in only occasional collisions between the particles of water vapor, thus providing the Earth's atmosphere with only a sprinkling of water over millennia of time. A MIST fell upon the earth.
8) The CANOPY of waters above the firmament would have shielded the crust of the Earth from the intense cosmic radiations and insulated the Earth from the production of radio-carbons and the breading of the radio-active atmosphere, providing the conditions for the pre-flood longevity of humankind. It would have shielded the intense solar rays responsible for the evaporation and the conditions for rain upon the Earth.  For the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the earth...

EXIT to MENU